Kindly explain the highlighted things

Greetings fellow learners, it is requested to clarify what do the highlighted terms mean:
Also why did we do the red circled things twice?

Hello @Talha1234! Thanks for the question!

time.time() gives the current time. So tic and toc record the time before and after executing the code of c =, b), and then you can do toc - tic to get the time that you have spent for executing the code.

It is ran twice but the first is for (...) and the second is for c = my_dot(...), so you can compare the time that you have spent for each of the code lines and see which one is faster.