Can some explain each choice in this question? Thank you!

I’m not sure how to explain this but let me share you some hints.

- Try write down the formula on paper and replace Γr, Γu with the constant 0, 1 in each choice and see the the final formula.
- Is the Varnishing Gradient Problems likely to occur with the final formula ? Try lookup again on the definition of this problem. hint: especially C(t), C(t-1) part

For gate_u, I think if gate_u is 1 then it means we do not remember the value from the previous time. If gate_u is 0 then it means we will remember the value from the previous time.

I don’t quite understand the purpose of gate_r. Could you explain it a little bit further? Thank you.

- gate_u/update gate/Γu is the gate that tell amount of information from c(~t) that we want to use.
- gate_r/reset gate/Γr is the gate that tell amount of information from the c(t-1) we want to ignore.
- Γ
**≈**0, Γ**≈**1 in the choice mean that Γ value is approximately close to that 0 or 1. removing value setting is equal assigning 1 to it automatically. - If gate_u is 1, it means that we want all information to be remembered and use, if gate_u is 0 it means that , in candidate memory cell
*c(~t)*, there is no information that we want to use. See Γu * c(~t) in c(t) equation , if Γu ≈ 1, it means that c(t) will use almost all information from c(~t). - If gate_r is 0 it means that we want to ignore all information from previous memory cell
*c(t-1)*and if it’s 1, it means that there’s no information that we want to ignore. See Γr * c(t-1) in the c(~t) equation, if Γr ≈ 0, it means that we will use a very tiny part of value of c(t-1) .

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